The artistic specialization brought about by a competitive marketplace helped to stimulate a higher level of drama. What problems did the farmers using an open-field system face and what solutions did they come up with?
Intellectually, the Enlightenment attacked and ridiculed Catholic Church, and the aristocracy was given very little support. August Hermann Francke was another important leader who made the University of Halle the intellectual center.
Drury Lane was rebuilt on a huge scale indesigned to seat 3, people. During a hour conversation in a Moscow restaurantKonstantin Stanislavskyan amateur actor of considerable experience, and Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenkoa playwright, teacher, and drama critic, talked over their vision of an ideal theatre company, its artistic policy, and its production methods.
The American pattern, in which the state must have no constitutional connection with religion, was influential among the older churches of Europe. The English Baptist Charles H.
This led to efforts to revitalize the rite of confirmation, which, since the days of Martin Bucerhad been practiced in Hesse. Traders bought brightly colored cotton cloth in Asia; they exchanged the cloth in Africa for slaves, who were brought either to the southern colonies in America or to the West Indies.
Louis XIV ruled the Palatinate for nine years and allowed the French Catholics to share the churches with the Protestants; though he was compelled to surrender the country at the Treaty of Rijswijk to the Holy Roman Empire following the War of the Grand Alliancea clause the Simultaneum of the treaty added at the last moment and not recognized by the Protestants preserved certain legal rights for Catholics in Protestant churches.
Weary of opposition and controversy, Spener accepted a call to be the court chaplain in Dresden, where he was soon disillusioned by the unresponsiveness and vulgarity of the court and the hostility of the pastors. Throughout the inculturation controversy, the very existence of Jesuits were under attack in Portugal, Spain, France, and the Kingdom of Sicily.
Jonathan Edwardsperhaps most powerful intellectual in colonial America, was a key leader. George Whitefield came over from England and made many converts. Expansion of Europe Essay Chapter American revival leaders, like Wesley in England and Zinzendorf in Germany, were forced to practice their ministry outside the established churches.
Ziegenhagen—including those from the Rhineland and southern Germany who settled in New York and Pennsylvania and from Salzburg who settled in Georgia. Accompanying the Salzburgers were two pastors selected by Francke, J. Alongside the orthodox piety of the 17th century, among the most significant contributions to spiritual renewal were the rich treasures of Lutheran hymnody.
Philosophers dreamed of a brighter age. Chinese missionaries were forbidden to take part in honors paid to ancestors, to Confuciusor to the emperors.
This led to a need to make agriculture as efficient as possible in order to feed the masses. The previous wars hurt the peasantry. Property relations should be reformed to give greater security to the ownership of land. To win popular support for his rule, Napoleon re-established the Catholic Church in France through the Concordat of Johann Friedrich Oberlin — mixed his biblicistic piety with a concern for social missions.
During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the American and French revolutions. A new audience also emerged at this time.
In many circles, not least among the nobility, he was praised and imitated. Thus, — is defined by the French Revolution and Napoleon; —48 forms a period of reaction and adjustment; —71 is dominated by a new round of revolution and the unifications of the German and Italian nations; and —, an age of imperialism, is shaped by new kinds of political debate and the pressures that culminated in war.
Then Granada fell and the same process was applied to the Moriscosthe Moorish converts, and the unconverted Moors, after a century, also were expelled. The year-old pope was taken prisoner to France in February and died in Valence August 29, after six months of captivity.
Freed from the necessity of defending every one of its details as historical truth, university professors put the books of the Bible into a historical setting. August Hermann Francke was another important leader who made the University of Halle the intellectual center.
Kings and princes in nearly every European country built court theatres to house it, and when the composition of the audience widened, huge opera houses were constructed. At least as an outward and historical form, established churches remained in England, Scotland, and all the Scandinavian countries.
Realism found its way into domestic dramas, too, one of the earliest innovations being the box set that replaced the perspective backcloth and wings depiction of a room with three solid walls and a ceiling. Rich produced a pantomime annually until The British did, however, start to intervene in Indian politics from the s, and revolutionary changes in their role in India were to follow.
The Great Awakening emphasized the traditional Reformed virtues of Godly preaching, rudimentary liturgy, and a deep sense of personal guilt and redemption by Christ Jesus.
Agriculture became a business rather than a means of subsistence, and the owners of small plots of land gradually became agricultural laborers rather than independent farmers. One of the greatest showmen of the time was P.Sep 29, · The emergence of modern Europe, – Economy and society.
The 16th century was a period of vigorous economic expansion. This expansion in turn played a major role in the many other transformations—social, political, and cultural—of the early modern age. Start studying The Expansion of Europe in the Eighteenth Century - Ch. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
had a high point in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries where they grew in number in cities and towns across Europe.
The Expansion of Europe in the 18th Century. 58 terms. Chapter. The 18th century lasted from January 1, to December 31, in the Gregorian calendar. many monarchies of Europe embraced Enlightenment ideals, The Ottoman Empire experienced an unprecedented period of peace and economic expansion, Millennium: 2nd millennium.
Feb 17, · At the start of the 18th century, the East India Company's presence in India was one of trade outposts. But by the end of the century, the Company was. 18th-century city life was frequently confusing and chaotic. The network of narrow allies and lanes, that had remained largely unchanged in many towns since medieval times, proved increasingly inconvenient to horse-drawn vehicles, and, like today, many cities were prone to traffic congestion.
expansion in the 18th century. STUDY. PLAY. State of agriculture in Chapter 17 The Expansion of Europe. 57 terms. Chapter 17 The Expansion of Europe. 74 terms. AP Euro Unit 5. terms. AP Euro Chapter OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR. 15 terms.
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